- David Cox - Current
Humans recognize visual objects with such ease that it is easy to overlook what an impressive computational feat this represents. Any given object in the world can cast an effectively infinite number of different images onto the retina, depending on its position relative to the viewer, the configuration of light sources, and the presence of other objects in the visual field. In spite of this extreme variation, biological visual systems are able to effortlessly recognize at least hundreds of thousands of distinct object classes—a feat that no current artificial system can come close to achieving. Our laboratory seeks to understand the neuronal mechanisms that enable this ability by reverse engineering simple biological visual systems. It is our hope that this work leads to a greater understanding of how our own brain works and to the construction of improved artificial visual systems.
- Ben deBivort - Current
The animal kingdom contains staggering morphological diversity, but even greater variety is manifest in animal behavior. All animals display species-specific ecological behaviors and behavior alone can distinguish species that are otherwise morphologically identical. Moreover, evolution and behavior exert reciprocal influences on each other - while evolution can diversify behavior, behavior can constrain the evolution of species. The goal of our lab is to understand the neurobiological mechanisms of ecologically and evolutionarily relevant behaviors using techniques drawn from circuit-driven neuroscience, comparative genomics, and ethology, as they are manifested in fruit flies from the genus Drosophila.
- Zvonimir Dogic - Rowland | Current
Complex Fluids and Condensed Matter
The objective of our research is to understand and control the self-assembly of matter on a colloidal length scale. The basic building blocks used are colloids of chemical or biological origin with well controlled spherical or rod-like shape and polymers with varying persistence length. The interactions between these components are well understood and can be modified in systematic ways. Despite the simplicity of these building blocks, they assemble into a variety of novel structures with unexpected complexity, e.g. 2D smectic phases, colloidal membranes, twisted chiral ribbons, and lamellar and columnar phases. These processes of self-assembly are under thermodynamic control and we use statistical mechanics to understand the final equilibrium structures. In the future we intend to study the assembly, phase transitions and dynamics of colloidal systems under non-equilibrium conditions
- Peer Fischer - Rowland | Current
Symmetry and Chirality
Our research focuses on the interaction of molecules with optical, magnetic, and electric fields. We are interested in a diverse spectrum of phenomena, ranging from light-matter interactions to electromagnetic forces. A specific aim is to develop new experimental methods and instrumentation for the detection of molecules and the separation of enantiomers.
- Kristin Lewis - Rowland | Current
Ecology and Botany
Parasitic angiosperms are unusual among parasitic organisms in that they and their hosts are in the same order and are very similar physiologically. The comparable physiology of parasite and host enables the parasite to create direct connections with host-plant conductive tissues and cells. Additionally, the host and parasite are influenced by similar endogenous and exogenous physiological cues. We are interested in what kinds of information can be shared across the host-parasite boundary and how this affects both plants' responses to environmental conditions. Our research focuses on the use of novel methodology to track transfer of resources and signaling molecules between host and parasite.
- Jiwoong Park - Rowland | Current
Nanoelectronics and Nanosensors
The electrical conductance of many nanoscale materials is strongly affected by a local electrostatic and electrochemical environment. This unique property can be utilized to build a nanosensor whose spatial resolution is comparable to the size of the sensor itself. The objective of our research is to investigate the electron transport properties of various nanoscale materials, including carbon nanotubes, semiconducting nanowires and single molecules, and to develop nanoscale sensors based on them.
- Ozgur Sahin - Rowland | Current
At the molecular level, physical and chemical properties of materials are tightly coupled to the mechanical properties. The potential of mechanics for interacting with matter at the nanoscale has been largely unexplored due to lack of instruments capable of performing mechanical measurements at nanometer length scales. Our research focuses on developing tools and techniques to perform nanomechanical measurements and applying them to problems in materials science, cell biology, and molecular biology.
- Andrew Speck - Rowland
Ultracold Rydberg Atoms and Terahertz Spectroscopy
The objective of our research is to study the interaction of highly excited, or Rydberg atoms, with unipolar terahertz electromagnetic pulses (half cycle pulses). These systems provide a fascinating regime in which to explore atomic states which exhibit both classical and quantum properties. The first series of experiments in my group will explore the interaction of a train of these pulses with Rydberg atoms. Further research will include the study of the magnetic properties of the half cycle pulse and their effect on atomic systems.
- Rachel Spicer - Rowland | Current
Plant Meristems Group
Plants are able to regenerate whole body parts like roots and shoots with relative ease because they demonstrate amazing cellular plasticity. Masters of dedifferentiation, plants not only retain pools of stem cells throughout their lives, but also create new stem cells in response to developmental and environmental cues. My primary interest is in the role of parenchyma cells in shaping large woody plants - namely, through their ability to dedifferentiate and generate new meristems in response to wounding, and during the transition to secondary growth. I'm interested in developing molecular and microscopy techniques to study secondary growth, including methods to image live cells in woody tissue.
- Frank Vollmer - Rowland | Current
We are interested in design and fabrication of photonic structures and circuits that interface, probe and manipulate biological systems with single molecule sensitivity. To reach this objective, light-matter interaction can be sufficiently enhanced by photon recirculation in micro- and nano-scale cavities that offer ultimate Q and record-low modal volume. Once established, the technique can help elucidate recognition, interaction and transformation of label-free biomolecules, the interplay of which give rise to various complex functions and networks that have evolved in the cell. Furthermore, access to a vast repertoire of functionality by self-assembly of purified or genetically altered biological components provides exciting opportunity for engineering of molecular-photonic device architecture.
- Wesley Wong -Rowland | Current
We are interested in how biological systems work at the nanoscale, and the physical laws that govern their behavior. Our focus is on weak, thermally mediated interactions between and within biological molecules (e.g. base-pairing in nucleic acids, receptor-ligand bonding, protein folding, etc.), and the coupling of these interactions to mechanical force. We are currently developing and applying new techniques, based on optical tweezers and high-resolution optical detection, to study the mechanics and force-driven kinetics of single-molecules.