Rowland Junior Fellow Alumni
David Cox - Harvard University
Humans recognize visual objects with such ease that it is easy to overlook what an impressive computational feat this represents. Any given object in the world can cast an effectively infinite number of different images onto the retina, depending on its position relative to the viewer, the configuration of light sources, and the presence of other objects in the visual field. In spite of this extreme variation, biological visual systems are able to effortlessly recognize at least hundreds of thousands of distinct object classes—a feat that no current artificial system can come close to achieving. Our laboratory seeks to understand the neuronal mechanisms that enable this ability by reverse engineering simple biological visual systems. It is our hope that this work leads to a greater understanding of how our own brain works and to the construction of improved artificial visual systems.
Ben deBivort - Harvard University
The animal kingdom contains staggering morphological diversity, but even greater variety is manifest in animal behavior. All animals display species-specific ecological behaviors and behavior alone can distinguish species that are otherwise morphologically identical. Moreover, evolution and behavior exert reciprocal influences on each other - while evolution can diversify behavior, behavior can constrain the evolution of species. The goal of our lab is to understand the neurobiological mechanisms of ecologically and evolutionarily relevant behaviors using techniques drawn from circuit-driven neuroscience, comparative genomics, and ethology, as they are manifested in fruit flies from the genus Drosophila.
Zvonimir Dogic - Rowland | Brandeis University
Complex Fluids and Condensed Matter
The objective of our research is to understand and control the self-assembly of matter on a colloidal length scale. The basic building blocks used are colloids of chemical or biological origin with well controlled spherical or rod-like shape and polymers with varying persistence length. The interactions between these components are well understood and can be modified in systematic ways. Despite the simplicity of these building blocks, they assemble into a variety of novel structures with unexpected complexity, e.g. 2D smectic phases, colloidal membranes, twisted chiral ribbons, and lamellar and columnar phases. These processes of self-assembly are under thermodynamic control and we use statistical mechanics to understand the final equilibrium structures. In the future we intend to study the assembly, phase transitions and dynamics of colloidal systems under non-equilibrium conditions
Peer Fischer - Rowland | Max Planck Institute
Symmetry and Chirality
Our research focuses on the interaction of molecules with optical, magnetic, and electric fields. We are interested in a diverse spectrum of phenomena, ranging from light-matter interactions to electromagnetic forces. A specific aim is to develop new experimental methods and instrumentation for the detection of molecules and the separation of enantiomers.
Kristin Lewis - Rowland | Volpe National Transportation System Center
Ecology and Botany
Parasitic angiosperms are unusual among parasitic organisms in that they and their hosts are in the same order and are very similar physiologically. The comparable physiology of parasite and host enables the parasite to create direct connections with host-plant conductive tissues and cells. Additionally, the host and parasite are influenced by similar endogenous and exogenous physiological cues. We are interested in what kinds of information can be shared across the host-parasite boundary and how this affects both plants' responses to environmental conditions. Our research focuses on the use of novel methodology to track transfer of resources and signaling molecules between host and parasite.
Jiwoong Park - Rowland | Cornell University
Nanoelectronics and Nanosensors
The electrical conductance of many nanoscale materials is strongly affected by a local electrostatic and electrochemical environment. This unique property can be utilized to build a nanosensor whose spatial resolution is comparable to the size of the sensor itself. The objective of our research is to investigate the electron transport properties of various nanoscale materials, including carbon nanotubes, semiconducting nanowires and single molecules, and to develop nanoscale sensors based on them.
Chris Richards - Rowland | Royal Veterinary College, UK
My lab explores how muscles move limbs to power swimming. Muscle is a spectacularly efficient and powerful motor which drives behaviors that impress biologists and engineers alike. How do aquatic animals accelerate rapidly or maneuver precisely at high swimming speeds? Intuition tells us that high performance swimming, such as prey capture or escaping, demands high muscle power. However, we cannot often predict the muscle power required for a given swimming task. Moreover, we do not fully understand how nerves communicate with muscles to achieve the exquisite control of swimming performance seen in nature. My lab seeks to understand the physiological basis for how nature's swimming machines (e.g. frogs, fish, aquatic insects) solve the difficult engineering problem of moving rapidly through water.
Ozgur Sahin - Rowland | Columbia University
At the molecular level, physical and chemical properties of materials are tightly coupled to the mechanical properties. The potential of mechanics for interacting with matter at the nanoscale has been largely unexplored due to lack of instruments capable of performing mechanical measurements at nanometer length scales. Our research focuses on developing tools and techniques to perform nanomechanical measurements and applying them to problems in materials science, cell biology, and molecular biology.
Yuki Sato - Rowland
Applied Matter & Devices
One of the overarching themes of our research is the investigations and applications of quantum coherent matter. In superconductors, superfluids, and Bose-Einstein condensates, a large fraction of constituent particles can occupy the same quantum ground state and behave in many ways as a single entity. We are interested in not only studying fascinating properties of such state of matter but also applying them as a set of tools to elucidate some subtleties of the quantum world. With disregard for presumed boundaries between applied physics, material science, and engineering, we also develop metamaterials and devices whose novel properties do not naturally exist in nature. Our current interests include superfluid and superconducting Josephson phenomena, nano/micro/meta-materials & devices, inertial sensing technologies, matter wave interferometry, and force/displacement sensing limits.
Ethan Schonbrun - Rowland
In biotechnology and medical diagnostics there is a large demand for the analysis of enormous sets of samples. Optical detection systems such as micro-array scanners, flow cytometers, and fluorescence microscopes are the standard work horse instrumentation for these applications. While these systems have proven successful, they are frequently based on the frame of a standard optical microscope which has tradeoffs in field of view, resolution, and light collection. By designing optical systems using a priori knowledge of the sample, many of these tradeoffs can be circumvented. In the Optofluidics Cytometry lab, we will investigate optical detection systems based on microfabricated components, such as lens arrays, computer generated holograms, and artificial dielectrics. By integrating these components with microfluidics and high speed cameras, we hope to realize a new generation of optical diagnostic devices.
Andrew Speck - Rowland
Ultracold Rydberg Atoms and Terahertz Spectroscopy
The objective of our research is to study the interaction of highly excited, or Rydberg atoms, with unipolar terahertz electromagnetic pulses (half cycle pulses). These systems provide a fascinating regime in which to explore atomic states which exhibit both classical and quantum properties. The first series of experiments in my group will explore the interaction of a train of these pulses with Rydberg atoms. Further research will include the study of the magnetic properties of the half cycle pulse and their effect on atomic systems.
Rachel Spicer - Rowland | Connecticut College
Plants are able to regenerate whole body parts like roots and shoots with relative ease because they demonstrate amazing cellular plasticity. Masters of dedifferentiation, plants not only retain pools of stem cells throughout their lives, but also create new stem cells in response to developmental and environmental cues. My primary interest is in the role of parenchyma cells in shaping large woody plants - namely, through their ability to dedifferentiate and generate new meristems in response to wounding, and during the transition to secondary growth. I'm interested in developing molecular and microscopy techniques to study secondary growth, including methods to image live cells in woody tissue.
Frank Vollmer - Rowland | Max Planck Institute
We are interested in design and fabrication of photonic structures and circuits that interface, probe and manipulate biological systems with single molecule sensitivity. To reach this objective, light-matter interaction can be sufficiently enhanced by photon recirculation in micro- and nano-scale cavities that offer ultimate Q and record-low modal volume. Once established, the technique can help elucidate recognition, interaction and transformation of label-free biomolecules, the interplay of which give rise to various complex functions and networks that have evolved in the cell. Furthermore, access to a vast repertoire of functionality by self-assembly of purified or genetically altered biological components provides exciting opportunity for engineering of molecular-photonic device architecture.
Laurence Wilson - Rowland | University of York
Biophysical Imaging and Spectroscopy Group
We are interested in understanding bacterial motility, particularly relating to the formation and propagation of biofilms. Most studies to date have focused either on macroscopic phenomena (for example, the size of colonies growing on agar plates) or on microscopic, single cell measurements. Our work focuses on the behavior of E. coli, using newly developed image processing algorithms to assess motility in much larger groups of individuals (typically around 10,000 at a time) than previously possible. We use high-throughput Fourier-space techniques, allowing the study of motility over a range of length scales from 1 micrometer to 1 millimeter, and timescales from one millisecond to several hours.
Wesley Wong - Rowland | Immune Disease Institute, Harvard Medical School Affiliate
Single-molecule Force Studies
We are interested in how biological systems work at the nanoscale, and the physical laws that govern their behavior. Our focus is on weak, thermally mediated interactions between and within biological molecules (e.g. base-pairing in nucleic acids, receptor-ligand bonding, protein folding, etc.), and the coupling of these interactions to mechanical force. We are currently developing and applying new techniques, based on optical tweezers and high-resolution optical detection, to study the mechanics and force-driven kinetics of single-molecules.
Rowland Scientists Alumni
Steven M. Block - Stanford University
Single Molecule Biophysics
Research in our lab marries aspects of physics and biology to study the properties of proteins or nucleic acids at the level of single macromolecules and molecular complexes. Experimental tools include laser-based optical traps ("optical tweezers") and a variety of state-of-the-art fluorescence techniques, in conjunction with custom-built instrumentation for the nanometer-level detection of displacements and piconewton-level detection of forces.
Ava Chase - Rowland
Using discrimination tasks we explore the perceptual and cognitive capabilities in fish.
Dongmin Chen - Rowland | Peking University
Nanoscale Quantum Physics
The main thrust of our group is to explore novel quantum phenomena in nanoscale materials using scanning tunneling microscopy in an ultra high vacuum, low temperature and high magnetic field environment.
Louis Cincotta - Rowland
Photomedicine and Photobiology
Supramolecular chemistry of the phenothiazine moeity and design of photosensitizers for the photo-inactivation of viruses. Isolation of anti-cancer agents from natural products and the exploration of tumor immunotherapies through the use of photodynamically generated tumor associated antigens.
James Foley - Rowland
Our research interests center on understanding fundamental structure/function relationships pertaining to the photophysics that govern the properties and behavior of organic dyes. We use this knowledge to develop improved chromophores for use in biophysical, biological and medical applications such as single molecule detection, fluorescent reporting and photodynamic therapy. Our approach encompasses nearly every aspect that is essential to such an undertaking including computer-aided design, chemical synthesis and photophysical characterization of target dyes.
Jean-Marc Fournier - Rowland
Research in how light interacts with matter : Lippmann photography (historical full-color photography process), developement of very high resolution photosensitive materials, optical trapping, holography, and an ultra-sensitive phase imaging microscope.
Lene Vestergaard Hau - Rowland | Harvard University
Bose-Einstein Condensation and Non-Linear Optics
Research centered on cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensation. Using laser cooling to efficiently precool atoms to temperatures in the microkelvin regime, then subsequently, the atoms are trapped in a 4 Dee magnet and evaporatively cooled to nanokelvin temperatures. This results in the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates typically containing millions of atoms. The condensates are formed in an ultra high vacuum system constructed for easy access to and manipulation of cold atom clouds with light probes and mechanical structures.
Jeffrey Hoch - Rowland | University of Connecticut Medical School
We study protein structure, dynamics, and stability. We try to understand how these properties relate to biological function. Our principal tool is NMR spectroscopy, but we also rely on other biophysical techniques.
Amit Meller - Rowland | Boston University
Single Molecule Biophysics
We study the dynamics of individual DNA and RNA molecules threaded through a nanomete scale pore (“nanopore”). The threading of the negatively charged biopolymers is made possible by an electric field applied across the nanopore. Controlling the magnitude of the field in real time allow us to apply a varying force on the molecule and study its response. In this way we are able to detect the interactions of polynucleotides with proteins, and study secondary structure formation in RNA. The structure of the single molecule is probed using time-resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer and single channel ion current measurements.
John Osterhout - Rowland | Angelo State University
Studies of a helical hairpin peptide, alpha T alpha, which is a de novo designed helix-turn-helix peptide using Circular Dichroism (CD) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Robert Savoy - Rowland
Brain mapping research using temporal resolution of fMRI to drive novel experimental design.
Diane Schaak - Rowland
The objective of my research is to develop an alternative method for treatment of bacterial infections using nature's own cure: the bacteriophage. Through a variety of molecular biological techniques, bacteriophages are being enhanced to insure complete elimination of an invasive bacteria.